The History and Antiquities of Horsham, by


Howard Dudley

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Title: The History and Antiquities of Horsham

Author: Howard Dudley


Release Date: January 17, 2010 [eBook #31003]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-646-US (US-ASCII)

***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF HORSHAM***

Transcribed from the 1836 edition by David Price, email ccx074@pglaf.org

[Picture: View of Horsham, from Denne Hill]


THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF HORSHAM.

[Picture: Decorative divider]

* * * * *

By the Author of Juvenile Researches.

* * * * *

ILLUSTRATED BY WOOD ENGRAVINGS

AND LITHOGRAPHIC VIEWS.

LONDON.

1836.

[Picture: Coat of Arms]

TO THE RT. HON. GEORGE O'BRIEN WYNDHAM,

Earl of Egremont AND BARON COCKERMOUTH.

THE FOLLOWING PAGES

ARE BY HIS LORDSHIP'S PERMISSION

RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED

By his obliged servant Howard Dudley.


ILLUSTRATIONS

LITHOGRAPHIC.

View from Denne hill frontispiece Interior of the nave 9 Horsham Church 6 Map of Horsham 68

WOOD-CUTS.

Town Hall 5 Horsham Church 7 The Chancel 8 Braose monument 11 Delves do. 14 Hoo monument 15 Brass figure 16 Arms of Foys 17 Marriott monument 19 Jamieson do. 24 Horsham gaol 27 Independent's chapel 29 Wesleyan do. 30 British Schools 33 Collier's do. 31 North Chapel 34 Chesworth House 35 Denne do. 38 Warnham Church 39 Caryll monument 40 Warnham Court 43 Field place 44 Nuthurst Church 53 Itchingfield do. 58 Farthing Bridge 60 Slinfold Church 62 Tregoz monument 63 Blount monument 64 Rusper nunnery Appendix Brass figure Do.

HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES, OF HORSHAM, AND ITS VICINITY

The ancient town and borough of Horsham, which has generally been past over in topographical accounts, as a place unworthy of notice; or lost in the dazzling descriptions, of the "modern maritime Babylon of Sussex," must always remain a spot, dear to the lover of antiquities, and romantic scenery. The derivation of its name, has ever continued a matter of great perplexity; which perhaps may be considered as a very strong argument, in favour of the antiquity of the place. Some persons conjecture, that the appellation is derived from the two Saxon words, hurst, and ham, the first syllable signifying a wood, and the second a village or collection of houses: and this opinion seems to be supported by the known fact, that this part of the county, was formerly one entire tract of forest land: but again quite as good if not a superior derivation, may be taken from the two words, Horsa, and ham, that is the village of, or built by, Horsa.

Horsham has enjoyed the privilege of sending two members to Parliament, ever since the year 1295: by the passing of the reform bill, however, one representative was considered sufficient for the business of the borough. The names of the persons first elected for the town, were Walter Burgeys, and Walter Randolf: Robert Henry Hurst esq. is the present member.

The spring assizes for the county, had also long been held in the Town-Hall of Horsham; but this privilege was selfishly abstracted from the town, by the inhabitants of Lewes; and even the county gaol, which has been stationed here, for time immemorial, is, we understand, to be removed to the all devouring eastern rival: the quarter sessions however, are still held here.

Still, notwithstanding, as respects the town, Horsham is greatly improving: the number of buildings which have been lately erected, and which are still erecting, are of a new and very handsome description: the streets are neatly paved, with the large flat stones procured from the excellent quarries in the neighbourhood; and the illumination of the streets by gas, which is being carried on with great spirit and energy, contribute very greatly to the general respectability and good appearance of the place.

Horsham consists of 4 principal streets, crossing one another at right angles, with a large square, stretching due N. and S., in the centre. The upper part of this square is commonly denominated the Gaol Green, in consequence of the prison, which formerly stood at the northern end, but of which two large walls, now found useful in an adjacent brewery, only remain.

[Picture: Town Hall]

The lower portion contains the large and handsome Town-Hall, of which the annexed sketch will afford some idea: a few years ago, the appearance which it presented was entirely different, being built on arches, in a similar manner, to the Council chamber, at Chichester, and surmounted by a stone with the inscription "Thirty six miles from Westminster Bridge," engraved thereupon: by the kind liberality of the Duke of Norfolk, it was completely repaired, and greatly enlarged; and though no longer applied to its original purpose, (except in the instance of the quarter sessions) it is still found very serviceable for lectures, public meetings, &c. &c. The north front is embellished by the arms of royalty, flanked by those of Norfolk and Horsham. On either side of the Hall, is a neat street, only one of which is a thoroughfare; these meet on the southern side of the building, in a very handsome and respectable walk, called the Church Causeway, at the termination of which, is the ancient and spacious church, (dedicated to St Mary) the approach is rendered particularly picturesque, by an avenue of lofty lime trees, of some extent, which leads in a perfectly straight direction, to the church-yard gateway: the effect of the view from this avenue, is exceedingly pleasing, particularly of a summer evening, when the rays of the setting sun cast a beautiful golden tint, upon the venerable porch, which appears a conspicuous object behind the portal.

[Picture: South view of Horsham Church]

The northern side of the edifice, though perhaps not quite equal to the southern, appears to great advantage, though the modern windows, which have been subsituted in several instances for others of great antiquity, add greatly to diminish the general effect.

[Picture: Horsham Church]

On entering the church by the eastern gateway, the interior of the structure appears to the highest advantage: the large and beautifully simple communion window, reaching almost from the basement to the roof, is by no means the least attractive object of attention; while the handsome appearance of the altar, raised by a flight of several steps, covered entirely with crimson cloths, the unusually large extent of the communion rails; and the numerous beautiful monuments, in every direction, afford a very elegant appearance, perhaps not to be equalled by any other parochial edifice in the county. Yet at the same time, the venerable roof of oaken planks; the large yet highly sculptured beams which have weathered nearly a thousand years; the tattered escotcheons; the crested helmets; and the antique tombs, afford a view at once pleasing and romantic.--Some attempt has been made to illustrate this portion of the church, (the chancel) in the annexed engraving, but no drawing can do justice to the original building.

[Picture: The Chancel]

The dimensions of the church are as below.

Length 146 ft. Width 53 8 in. Height 47 10

[Picture: The Nave]

The roof is supported upon wooden ribs, crossed by others of the same materials: the joints are covered by ornamented plates of iron, of very grotesque descriptions: in the nave, the ribs are almost double the distance apart, of those in the chancel: the junction of the roof and walls, in the latter portion of the edifice, are adorned with curious little figures of horses, foxes, &c. &c. interspersed with stars, and many other similar devices.

The entire edifice is supported upon eight columns on either side: three constituting the chance, and the remaining five the nave: the galleries are particularly neat, more especially that appropriated to the organ, the whole of the pewing being covered entirely with green baize. The lancet windows, with which the church was formerly furnished, have almost all been altered for others of a later date, except in the clerestory, where they retain their original form. The large east window, before mentioned, was formerly adorned with no less than 14 coats of arms richly painted. The roof was put up, at the time that the Norfolks were lords of the borough: in the year 1825, a curious old inscription was discovered upon the summit of the walls, reaching from one end of the church to the other, but it was very remarkable, that the centres of all the letters, (which were about a foot in length) were entirely, and apparently designedly effaced, so that not the slightest meaning could be discovered from it.

In the chancel, is the curious and remarkable effigy of Thomas lord Braose ob. 1396. This noble and ancient family were formerly almost the sole proprietors of the county of Sussex. One of their residences was at Chesworth, an ancient mansion to the south of the town, which shall afterwards be described; and Bramber Castle also near Steyning, originally appertained to these powerful barons. The head of the figure, "is defended by a basinet, ornamented by a draplet of jewels, his throat by the ample carmail, attached to the helmet as in the time of Edward III. His arms are in plate armour, and his body in a shortened hauberk, kept from pressing on his chest, by means of the plastron, or breast-plate, within. Over this is the juppon, bearing his coat of arms, viz. seme of cross croslets, a lion rampant crowned. Suspended from his military girdle at his right hip, is his dagger, the sheath of which, is ornamented in an architectural style, and in the same manner at the left, hung his long sword, of which no traces now remain. On his insteps, are large pieces attached to the spur leathers, and terminated by indented edges which conceal the chain mail beneath. His jousting helmet, surmounted by his crest, a demi-lion rampant, issuing from a coronet, is under his head, but greatly mutilated, all below the oscularium, having been destroyed." {12}

[Picture: Braose monument]

At a very small distance from the above mentioned monument, is a very beautiful altar tomb of white marble, relieved alternately by slabs of black: upon this is an admirable and most elaborately executed figure, of a lady, in long flowing robes, her right hand reclines upon her breast, while her left rests upon the Holy Scriptures, in a peculiarly graceful manner: it is the work of Francis Fanelli, an Italian sculptor, of great eminence in his day, and has escaped the devastation generally inflicted on works of art in the parochial edifices of Sussex; the inscription is as follows.

Here lyeth (expecting a joyfull resurction,) the body of Elizabeth, late wife of Thomas Delves Esquire, son and heire apparent to Sr. Henry Delves of Dvddington in the Covnty of Chester, Barronet, who deceased the 2nd day of December 1654, being somewhat more than 25 yeares old; then in childbed of Henry their 2nd son, who with Thomas their eldest son did both survive her. She was enriched with many ornaments, both of mind and body, and memorable for virtue, in the several relations of her life, whereunto she was any way engaged, being religious as she was a Christian, dutiful as a daughter, affectionate as a wife, tender as a mother, discreete in her family as a Mistris, charitable in the relation of a neighbour, also of a sweet and affable disposition and of a sober and winning conversation. She was the only child of Hall Ravenscroft Esq.r of this parish, by the mother descended of ye Staplays of this county. Her sorrowful husband, sadley weighing such a considerable losse, erected this monument, that an impartiall memorial of her might bee the better communicated to posterity.

[Picture: Delves monument]

On the south side, are the arms of the deceased with the motto "In Dieu ma foy".

[Picture: Hoo monument]

On the other side of the church, in a portion denominated the Roffy chancel, is a large, and beautifully sculptured altar-tomb, of Sussex marble, with a light and curious canopy of the same material, supported upon pillars: on the surface were formerly a brass inscription, and armorial bearings, but all of these have disappeared, it is supposed to cover the remains of Thomas Hoo Knt. lord Hoo and de Hastings, ob. 1455.

According to Dallaway, mention is made in the visitation book of Philpot and Owen, A.D. 1634, of two other monuments, not at present remaining. "Under the communion table,

Hic jacet William Hoo armiger, qui obiit 2do mensis Sept. 1465

Arms, Hoo impaling a fess.

On a marble stone,

Orate pro animab, Thomae Cobert et ejus uxor qui quidem Tho. ob. 1495.

Arms, two shields, 1 Covert, impaling a phaon's head: 2 impaling, a chevron, 2 roundlets, in chief a buck's head caboshed."

Under the organ gallery, is a curious brass of a man and woman, in the antique dress of the time, with the following inscription, in Gothic characters, below them.

Here lyeth Richard Foys, and Elizabeth his wife: which Richard deceased in 21 day of April, MDLCIII.

Affixed to one of the columns supporting the organ gallery, is a small slab of white marble, with a frame of black: the inscription in black letter runs thus.

In this seat is interred the body of Thomas Pyke Barber and Chyrurgeon, who departed this life the 16 day of Nov., in the year of our Lord MDLXXXI; and in remembrance of him, this monument was erected by his brother Wm. Pyke.

[Picture: Arms of Foys]

At a very small distance from this tablet, the annexed inscription can be discovered upon a stone in the middle cross aisle.

Here lyeth Robert Hvrst of Hvrst hill, who died A.D. 1483, Nicholas his son, A.D. 1533, and Richard son of Nicholas Feb. 16th A.D. 1592.

The other monumental inscriptions are to the following persons.

John Mitchell of Stammerham 1610, Mary his wife daughter of William Gresham gent. of Surrey, 1610; Maurice Barrow gent. 1778; John Parsons esq. 1702; Cecilia Maria his wife 1700; Mrs. Olive Eversfield, only sisters to Mary wife of Charles Eversfield, of Denne place, 1704; Rev. Geo. Marshall, 35 year officiating minister of this parish, 1819; Charles Eversfield of Denne place, and Mary his wife; Sir Charles Eversfield Bart., 1784; Mrs. Olive Eversfield 1803; Anna Maria Willemot Thornton, 1824; William Jamieson vicar of Horsham 1821; Edward Tredcroft, 1768; Mary Tredcroft, 1794; Sarah and Henry Du Cane Cap. Richard Marriott, 1805, the beautiful female figure which surmounts this monument, is the work of Westmacot, Tristram Revel, lieut. col. 1797; Rev. T. White 1788; Thomas Brien sen. 1741; Mrs Mary Jenden 1802; John Smith esq. 1758; Elizabeth Smith; 1780; Griffith Smith 1663; Charles Smith 1689; Adam Smith 1789: Harriet Smith 1800; Mrs Martha Longhurst 1750; John Foster 1750; Elizabeth Foster his wife 1743; John Medwin eldest son of John Charles & Mary Medwin, unfortunately killed by a fall from a gig, at the foot of Picts hill near Horsham, 1806; Lieu. Henry Clough Medwin 1815; Henry Ellis 1785; Mrs Ann Godwin 1822; George Cheynell 1747; Elizabeth his wife, 1781; John Eversfield esq. 1669. Besides these there are slabs to the memory of the following individuals.--Thomas Waller: Thomas Dunball: Mary Woodyear: William Norman: John Higgen: Thomas Buen: Henry Waller: John Rowland: Hannah Howes: Ann Curtis: John Pilfold: Robert Hall: William White: William Griffith: Henry Griffith: Ann Griffith: Hen. Groombridge: Elizabeth Hewet: Henry Ellis: Henry Groombridge: Judith Jeamison: Samuel, Sarah, and Catherine, Wicker: Matthew White: Francis Read: James Waller: John Middleton esq.: Ann Chourn Isabella Ramsden; Sir Bysshe Shelley Bart. of Castle Goring: Mary Catherina his wife: Catherine their daughter. All of these monuments, with the exception of six, belong to the last century.

[Picture: Marriott monument]

The font constructed of Sussex marble, is octagonal, and handsomely sculptured: date 1455.

[Picture: Font and cover]

The following inscriptions are noticed in the Burrel MSS. (British Museum,) which at present do not remain.

In mortem Georgii Allen.

Quod fuit esse, quod est, quod non fuit esse, quod esse, Esse quod est, non esse quod est, non est erit esse: Vita malis plena est, pia mors pretiosa corona est; Post vitam mors est, post mortem vita beata est.

In the window of the North chancel, was the following, in Gothic characters.

Orate pro anima, Wiliemi Attwood de Horsham et Aliciae uxor ejus, quae istam fenestram fieri fecit; A.D. 1428.

"Madam Eversfield (according to Dallaway) gave one silver flaggon, two silver cups, one basin for oblation, gilt; pulpit cushion and cloth, with gold fringe, and a branch of candlesticks to the body of the church. Two dozen of penny loaves, to be disposed of among the poor every Sunday, that frequent the church, for ever; the gift of Mr Theobald Shelley." "The same person with the Lady Matthews, gave this portion of bread to be disposed of every Sunday for ever, for the encouragement of the poor to frequent the church." This is inscribed in front of the organ gallery. In the parish registers mention is made of an attack of the plague, by which this place was afflicted, though happily not to a very alarming extent, they commence in the year 1560. Over the vestry, (which was built in the reign of Edward VI) is a very curious old room reached by means of a spiral stair-case, terminated by a trap door: the oaken roof depends entirely upon a large beam in the centre. It is called the Lollard's tower, and was most probably used as a place of confinement for that unfortunate sect: the apertures for light are thickly guarded by double iron bars, and in one place, on the north wall, the remains of an iron ring are visible: the only thing of any consequence in this cold and cheerless apartment, is a large oaken chest, curiously carved, with a secret drawer of superior workmanship. The beautiful service of communion plate is also kept here.

[Picture: Jamieson monument]

In the Roffy chancel is the beautiful monument of Mr Jamieson; the figure of the angel above, pointing upwards, is exquisitely sculptured, and deserves much attention. Dallaway mentions that there appear to have been two chantries and a brotherhood founded in this church, whose history is rather obscure, in some measure contradictory; the first he adds, "was built by Walter Burgess who in the year 1307, obtained a license to endow with 50 acres of land, a chaplain to celebrate divine service daily in the parish church of Horsham, for the souls of himself and his successors. The other was denominated Butler's chantry, and was founded by one John Body and others by the lycens of King Hen. VI, for one chapleyn to say diligent service for ever, as th'aulter of St Michauel in the church of Horsham; to pray for the soulles of King Henry &c.; the said chapleyn to have for his wagis vijlr for the year, for ever, which hath been continued accordingly till about viij yeares past, at which time Sir Will, Brandon, clerk, then incumbent, sold the same unto Sir Roger Copley, and after such sale by him made, he the said Sir William, did sing after the space vj yeares, and the said Sir Roger Coqley paid him his wagis.'" "Horsham,--Butler's Chantry.--William Brandon of th'age of --- yeares, was last incumbent there, but not resident, since anno reg. xxvij who sold his interest to Mr Copley for viijli xi s. ij d. {26} At the west end of the building is a large massy tower, lately put into thorough repair, this is surmounted by an octagonal spire, 230 feet in height, and formed of wooden shingles carefully fitted together. The great bell of this church is the largest in the county, and weighs nearly a ton and a half: the whole peal, consisting of eight, is extremely melodious.

* * * * *

On the 17th of November 1231, John de Braose granted the church of Horsham with all its appurtenances, to the prioress and nuns of Rusper, for their exclusive use; by same deed it was also ordained, that on account of the size of the parish, and the number of inhabitants, the vicar who shall officiate in the church from time to time, shall have one chaplain as his assistant, and two subordinate ministers, viz. a deacon and sub-deacon, to officiate with him in the same church. At the dissolution of monastic establishments, in the reign of Henry VIII, the Archbishop of Canterbury came into the patronage of the vicarage.

[Picture: Horsham gaol]

The county gaol is situated in East street, upon a very elevated site; it was erected about 50 years since, by William Griffith, who ruined himself, by contracting for the building: it is a neat and handsome structure, and extremely appropriate for the purpose, on the South is a small garden extending along the front of the building, which has two court-yards, of about half an acre each, with a gravel walk surrounding a fine grass-plot, and the whole is encircled by a lofty wall. To prevent confusion or danger in case of fire, every cell is arched over with brick, and a separate room allotted to each debtor and felon. The chapel is in the keeper's house, where prayers are read daily, and a sermon delivered every Sunday by the chaplain. The annual salary of the keeper is 180l.: that of the Chaplain 160l. and of the Surgeon 70l. per annum: the matron and the three male turnkeys receive 8s. each weekly: the internal management is regulated by rules made at the quarter sessions, and confirmed by the judges of assize.

[Picture: Independent's chapel]

The Independent's chapel, is situated near the end of West Street, it is peculiarly neat, both as respects its external and interior appearance: an inscription upon an oval tablet in front, informs us, that it was erected by voluntary subscription in the year 1814. At the distance of about a hundred yards from the above, is the Roman Catholic chapel, with an embattled front surmounted by a cross: service is performed here, only once a fortnight; proceeding on in the same direction, we arrive at the Anabaptist chapel, a respectable building of some antiquity, a little to the left of which is the Friends' meeting house, in a very pretty retired situation. The Wesleyan chapel was erected in Brunswick place, A.D. 1832, it is simple in its style, but exceedingly neat, elegant, and appropriate: the last religious edifice in Horsham, is the Baptist's chapel, situated in New Street, it much resembles the Independant's in its exterior appearance.

[Picture: Wesleyan chapel]

"Richard Collier by his will dated Jan 23 1532, benevolently left a small estate, at Stratford le Bow in the county of Middlesex to be sold, and the product to be laid out in the purchase of a school house at Horsham, where he was born." {31} The children enjoying the privileges of this charity, are annually selected by the vicar and churchwardens with eight of the most "honest" inhabitants, they are allowed to remain till the age of 14 and any number may at the discretion of the school wardens, be instructed in the Latin language. It is expressly ordered in the will, that the children elected, should be the offspring of "poor people, in especial of the said parish, and next about the same, to be educated in reading, writing, arithmetic, and the principles of the Christian religion." The charitable founder also bequeathed to the Mercers' Company, a house and premises in Cheapside London, for the support of the master and usher, whose annual salaries are, 120l. for the former, and 80l. for the latter. The school house is situated in a peculiarly delightful and romantic situation, with a pleasant croft in front, extending to the east side of the church yard; the accompanying wood-cut represents the west front of the building.

[Picture: The British Schools]

The National School is held in the church porch, where great numbers of the younger children of the poor are instructed.

A very neat building, denominated Denne School, has been erected in a delightful situation, at the foot of the hill, from which it takes its name, for the education of the girls of the neigbouring indigent persons.

In the back lane, the members of the church of England, have instituted an infant school, which appears a very pleasant object in this hitherto neglected portion of the town.

The Royal British Schools are also well worth the inspection of the visitor: the boys are taught reading, writing, grammar, linear and perspective drawing &c.

To the North of Horsham, on Hurst hill, is Moated House, formerly belonging to the family of the Westons: this mansion was the residence of Robert Hurst ob. 1483, whose monument in the church, the reader will remember.

[Picture: North Chapel]

Nearer the town, is a very ancient building formerly belonging to lord Hoo and de Hastings, whose remains are interred in the church: a farm house at present the property of the duke of Norfolk alone marks the site of this once splendid and princely edifice.

[Picture: Chesworth House]

Chesworth, one of the oldest houses in the county, was formerly as before said, the residence of the noble family of Braose, this truly romantic structure is situated a little to the south east of the town, of which it is one of the chief objects of interest. The unfortunate Thomas duke of Norfolk, who fell a victim to the malignant jealousy of Queen Elizabeth, was apprehended here, A.D. 1571. It is said that the papers concealed by Higford, and which led to his conviction, were discovered under the roof of this building. Several apartments of very spacious dimensions, but of whose existence the inhabitants were totally ignorant, were discovered through accident, by a maid servant about 20 years since. The chapel now used as a wash-house, is still quite perfect, and of great height: several niches for the statues of saints, and receptacles for holy water, may be discovered in the sides: through the falling of part of the wall, a few years ago, several Roman coins were dug up, from which circumstance, it has been by some persons imagined, that the place was originally a Roman villa.

To the west of the town, is Hills place, or rather the remains of an elegant residence, so called; it was formerly the property of the lords Irvine, and was considered a very handsome specimen of the domestic architecture of the age, in which it was erected. It was taken down a few years since, and no vestige left to mark its site, save the remnants of a farm house in existence before the building of the mansion itself, and part of a wing added to the structure, on the marriage of lord William Ingram, one of the family.

[Picture: Hills place, 1787]

In one of the upper rooms, is a venerable escocheon, with the motto "In coelo quies," serving to exclude the wind from the antique chamber.

On a lofty eminence denominated Denne hill, the visitor may obtain a very beautiful view of the town of Horsham, with its adjacent hills behind, the interesting church appears by far the most conspicuous object in the wide extended landscape, while the small and winding branch of the river Arun, which takes its rise in the adjacent forest of of St. Leonard, contributes not a little to heighten the beauty, and diversify the scene, of this truly delightful and extensive prospect.

At a short distance from the spot where this romantic view may be obtained, the ivied tower, and venerable battlements of Denne house, proudly rise upon the sight. The spot upon which this edifice stands, is particularly interesting, being generally supposed by antiquarians to be the site of a Danish encampment, during a conflict with the Picts, who made choice of an opposite eminence, still retaining the name of Pict's hill, while the one we have just described preserves the appellation of Denne (undoubtedly derived from Dane) hill. The estate formerly belonging to the family of Braose, was forfeited to the crown, with other lands, on the attainder of Thomas duke of Norfolk into whose possession it had fallen: in the year 1594, it was awarded by Sir William Covert and Sir John Caryll to James Boath, by whom it was sold five years afterwards to Stephen Barnham of London for 1250l. Shortly afterwards however the two sons of the last mentioned person, parted with it to Sir Thomas Eversfield for the sum of 5500l.

[Picture: Denne House]

After passing through the hands of several of his descendants, it devolved to William Markwick esq, who took the name of Eversfield, and to whose grandson a minor it now belongs.

[Picture: Warnham Church]

Continuing along the London road from Horsham for about 3 miles and then pursuing the road to the left, we arrive at the picturesque, secluded, and delightful little village of Warnham, bounded on the east by Rusper, west by Slinfold, south by Itchingfield, and north by Capel, and containing in 1831, 952 inhabitants. The village is lather extensive, and consists principally of one long narrow street, running N. and S., the church on the west side is particularly neat, though exhibiting a variety of style, and consists of a nave and south aisle, with three chancels: the northern of these latter portions is divided from the south aisle, by a handsome oaken skreen, carved in the Gothic style, and formerly belonged to the Carylls. On the north side is a curious old mural monument, bearing the effigies of a man in armour and a woman kneeling; below are 8 smaller figures intended for their children, with another person armed, in the centre. The inscription informs us that it was erected to the memory of Sir John Caryll Knt., eldest son of Thomas Caryll esq. of Warnham, and Maria his wife, daughter of George Cotton of Warblington, ob. 1613. The south chancel belonged to the Mitchell family of Field Place, and contains monuments to the memory of Mary Mitchell widow, mother of Edward Shelley esq., by Sir Timothy Shelley gent, ob. 1731; John Mitchell gent. 1711: John Shelley esq. 1799; Mary his wife 1759: Edward Shelley esq., of Field place 1747. The centre chancel, formerly belonging to the appropriation, is at present, in conjunction with the other two, the property of Sir Timothy Shelley Bart. In the body of the church are slabs to Samuel Shuckford, 45 years vicar of Warnham and Eartham, Ann his widow, and Matthew Napper gent. In the pavement of the south aisle, the side of an altar tomb, adorned with shields and quatrefoils, and apparently of the time of Edward I, may be discerned: the font is square, and of the same date; the pulpit stands upon a basement of brick, which gives it a particularly singular appearance: the neat embattled tower contains five bells, and is of later construction than the rest of the building.

[Picture: Monument of Sir John Caryl]

Warnham Court, a handsome mansion in the style of Elizabeth, and a very striking feature of the surrounding country, was erected about three years since, by Henry Tredcroft esq.: the house contains about 50 apartments, and is built of brick faced with stone: the grounds are tastefully arranged, and the park, though so recently laid out, assumes a beautiful and verdant appearance.

[Picture: Warnham Court]

To the south of Warnham, is Field Place, the residence for several centuries of the family of Mitchell. The only daughter of the Rev. Theobald Mitchell, married the late Sir Bysshe Shelley, by whose son Sir Timothy, it is now possessed. Percy Bysshe Shelley, the celebrated poet and friend of Byron, was born here: a brief but interesting account of his life, may be found in Horsefield's "History of Sussex" vol. 2nd. under the description of Warnham.

[Picture: Field place]

To the east of Horsham, is a tract of land, containing between eight and nine thousand acres, called St. Leonard's forest: although its nearest point is seven miles from the upper part of Beeding, it is within the limits of that parish: the chief part of the soil is poor, it contained considerable quantities of iron stone, which was smelted, but as the timber became exhausted, the smelting of the iron has been long discontinued, and nothing remains to denote the former manufactory of cast iron, but several large ponds in various parts of the forest, still called Hammer ponds.

This forest has ever been the subject of the legends of neighbouring peasants, woe (according to their account) to the luckless wight, who should venture to cross it alone on horseback during the night, for no soon will he have entered its darksome precincts, than a horrible decapitated spectre in the shape of a former squire Paulett, disregarding all prayers or menaces, leaps behind him on his good steed, and accompanies the affrighted traveller to the opposite boundaries.--The celebrated St. Leonard also, through whose efficacious prayers

"The adders never stynge, Nor ye nyghtyngales synge,"

in its gloomy mazes is often the theme of the cottagers fire side conversation.

But neither ghost, nor cast iron, nor saint Leonard himself, have gained for this forest so much celebrity as its famous DRAGON, or serpent! This venemous reptile, which some persons have rendered into some obnoxious proprietor, has been honoured with a long and minute description in the following account.

"True and wonderful, A discourse relating to a strange monstrous serpent or dragon, lately discovered, and yet living to the great annoyance and divers slaughters both of men and cattle by his strong and violent poyson, in St. Leonard's forest, and thirtie miles from London, this present month of August, 1614, with the true generation of serpents. Printed at London by John Trundle 1614.

In Sussex there is a pretty market towne, called Horsam, neare unto a forest called St Leonard's forest, and there in a vast unfrequented place, heathie, vaultie, full of unwholesome shades and overgrown hollowes, where this serpent is thought to be bred; but wheresoever bred, certaine and too true it is, that there it yet lives. Within three or four miles compass are its usual haunts, oftentimes at a place called Faygate, and it hath been seene within half a mile of Horsam, a wondre no doubt most terrible and noysome to the inhabitants thereabouts. There is always in his tracke or path, left a glutinous and slimy matter (as by a small similitude we may perceive in a snail) which is very corrupt and offensive to the scent, in so much that they perceive the air to be putrified withall, which must needs be very dangerous: for though the corruption of it cannot strike the outward parts of a man, unless heated into blood, yet by receiving it in at any of our breathing organs, (the nose or mouth) it is by authority of all authors writing in that kinde, mortal and deadlie; as one thus saith,

'Noxia serpentum est admixto sanguine pestis.--LUCAN.'

The serpent, or dragon as some call it, is reputed to be nine feete or rather more, in length, and shaped almost in the forme of an axle-tree of a cart, a quantitie of thickness in the middest, and somewhat smaller at both ends. The former part which he shootes forth as a necke, is supposed to be about an ell long, with a white ring as it were of scales about it. The scales along his backe, seeme to be blackish, and so much as is discovered under his bellie, appeareth to be red: for I speak but of no nearer description than a reasonable ocular distance; for coming too neare, it hath already been too dearely paid for, as you shall heare hereafter. It is likewise discovered to have large feete, but the eye may be deceved, for some suppose that serpents have no feete, but glide along upon certain ribbes and scales, which both defend them from the upper part of the throat unto the lower part of their bellie, and also cause them to move much the faster. For so this doth, and rids away as we call it, as fast as a man can run. He is of countenance very proud, and at the sight or heareing of men and cattle, will raise his necke upright, and seem to listen and looke about with great arrogancie. There are likewise on either side of him discovered two great bunches, so big as a large footeball, and as some think will grow to wings, but God I hope will so defend the poor people in the neigbourhood, that he shall be destroyed, before he growe so fledge.--He will cast his venome about 4 roddes from him, as by woeful experience it was proved on the bodies of a man and woman coming that way, who afterwards were found dead, being poysoned and very much swelled, but not preyed upon. Likewise a man going to chase it and as he imagined to destroy it with two mastiff dogs as yet not knowing the great danger thereof, his dogs were both killed, and he himself glad to returne with haste to preserve his own life: yet this is to be noted that the dogs were not preyed upon, but slaine and left whole, for his food is thought to be for the most part in a conie warren, which he often frequents, and it is found to be much scanted and impaired, in the encrease it had wont to afford.--These persons, whose names are here under printed, have scene this serpent, besides divers others, as the carrier of Horsam, who lieth at the White Horse, in Southwark, and who can certifie the truth of all that hath been herein related.--

"John Steele, "Christopher Holder, "And a widow woman dwelling at Faygate."

Previously to the reformation, St. Leonard's forest contained two chapels, one of which is mentioned as early as the year 1320. No traces of either remain at the present day.

* * * * *

Proceeding from Horsham along the London road, and passing Thornton ville, a collection of houses lately erected by the person resident at Springfield, we arrive at Coolhurst, the delightful and elegant mansion of the Marchioness of Northampton: the vicinity of this seat was lately rendered particularly interesting by a romantic and beautiful glen called Dubbin's Green, one of the wildest and most secluded spots in the district, but it is greatly to be lamented, the enclosing of the adjacent common, has almost entirely destroyed the beauty of the scenery, and robbed the visitor of a truly rural and picturesque treat. Continuing along the turnpike road for some distance, and then inclining to the right, the pretty little village of Nuthurst, with its modest spire peeping amidst the lowly cottages which constitute the single street is display before the sight. To the east of the parish is a portion of St. Leonard's forest, and a part of the parish of Cowfold: to the west Horsham, and part of Broadwater; to the north another portion of the forest; and south Cowfold. The district is peculiarly rich and beautiful, abounding in springs of excellent water in every direction. The church, of the time of Edward III, and dedicated to St. Andrew, is in the early style of English architecture, with a low tower, containing 3 bells, and surmounted by a low shingled spire, at the west end. The roof is pannelled in a similar manner to the church at Horsham; the ribs and knots of two pannels are gilt and painted. The communion window contains remnants of stained glass, representing the Salvator Mundi, and two angels scattering incense. The monumental inscriptions are to the memory of Joseph Tuder esq. of Sedgewick park, 1774: Rebecca Nelthorpe his niece, 1784; William Nelthorpe esq., 1791: Elizabeth Nelthorpe 1801; Eliza Sarah wife of James Tuder Nelthorpe esq. of Nuthurst lodge, died at Paris 1826, and was interred in the cemetry of Pere la chaise; John Aldridge of New Lodge, 1803: John Warburton Aldridge son of the above, 1801: Samuel Aldridge 1773: Sophia Aldridge 1769. The font is plain and octagonal.

[Picture: Nuthurst Church]

Near Nuthurst in a very delightful situation, commanding extensive views of the sea and south downs, is Nuthurst Lodge, the residence of James Tuder Nelthorpe esq.: at a very short distance from the mansion, are the remains of an ancient castle or hunting seat, surrounded by an oute and inner moat, of a circular form, and traceable everywhere; the foundations of the walls are quite visible, and one apartment of a sexagonal shape is entirely perfect. About 40 yards farther on, surrounded by copse wood, and over hanging trees, is a small well of a circular form, and surrounded by cut stone overgrown by moss: a flight of winding steps, leading to it, from an adjacent eminence, adds a peculiarly romantic and pleasing effect to this venerable work of antiquity, which is known by the name of the Nun's Well. No account is to be found of its history, though it may perhaps have belonged to the neighbouring castle. The traditions among the inhabitants affirm, that a subterraneous passage connects this castle with the nunnery at Rusper, which is 8 miles distant, but no attempt has been undertaken to ascertain the truth of this conjecture. Passing over Tower Hill, an eminence near Horsham, we arrive at the village of Itchingfield, or Hethinfield as it was formerly called. The earliest notice of this place, is to be found in an ancient deed A.D. 1233, when "Hugh de Mabel and Susanna his wife, sold to Robert atte Feching, one messuage and half a carucate of land, at Hethinfield." The parish is bounded on the east by Horsham, south by Shipley, west by Shipley, and north by Slinfold, and contained in 1831, 349 inhabitants. The church dedicated to St. Nicholas is of the time of Henry III, or Edward the I. Its exterior is particularly rustic especially the low tower at the west end, which is formed of entire trunks of trees fastened together by wooden bolts. Against one of the walls of timber in the belfry is an ancient painting representing Moses receiving the ten commandments on mount Sinai, it was most probably used as a kind of altar piece.

[Picture: Itchingfield Church]

In the chancel is a mural monument to the memory of Richard Wheatly gent, ob. 1668, and some members of his family, who were nearly allied to the Mitchells of Field place. There is also another inscription to the memory of the Rev. Alexander Hay, former rector of the parish, 1724, also several of his children. Dallaway mentions that after the Scotch rebellion in 1715, some of the attained persons took refuge in the woods of Itching field, and were permitted to reside with their countryman Alexander Hay; indeed we can hardly imagine a more suitable place for concealment, than the parsonage house, situated as it was at that time, in the centre of a dense forest, through which there was hardly any passable road.

The last monumental inscription is for the Rev. Thomas Lavender a most exemplary minister of this parish, for upwards of 60 years, he died in the year 1776, at the age of 86.

The font is modern, but particularly neat and handsome; one of a very ancient description, was lately dug up in the churchyard.

[Picture: Farthing Bridge]

Proceeding along the turnpike road to the west of Horsham and passing Farthing Bridge, of which the annexed wood-cut is a representation, we reach Broad-bridge Heath, a delightful, picturesque, and salubrious plain, so called: by pursuing the centre road, the visitor will arrive at Stroud, a small hamlet about 3 miles from Horsham; it is chiefly remarkable for the elegant residence denominated Stroud park, belonging to --- Commerell esq.: the grounds around the house particularly deserve attention, and the sweetly retired situation of the fishing house, erected upon the banks of a lake surrounded by the majestic and noble trees for which this district is so justly celebrated, whilst the deep silence which pervades the whole, interrupted only by the rippling stream beneath, and the delightful choir of the feathered songsters, combine to render it, in every sense of the word, a most enchanting and delightful scene.

[Picture: Slinfold Church]

By taking the road to the left hand, on Broad-bridge heath, and again turning to the right at Lion's Corner gate, the village of Slinfold, to which the hamlet of Stroud belongs, soon appears in sight. "Fold" observes Mr. Dallaway, "is a termination frequently belonging to parishes within the weald and in distinction to Hume seems to be applied to those which were first cultivated in square inclosures, after the removal of timber and underwood. This observation belongs to the early Saxon aera; and it is evident that the name of almost every vilor or farm within the district is derived from them." The church build at the end of the village, was erected at the formation of the parish by bishop Ralph in 1230. It has a nave and north aisle with a small sepulchral chapel appendant. In this portion of the church which belongs to the manor of Dedisham, is a curiously sculptured female figure, destitute of any inscription, but traditionally said, to belong to a member of the family of Tregoz.--There are also two other mural monuments, with small painted alabaster effigies of women in the ancient dress of their times. The first of which we give a sketch, appears particularly "en bon point," and is represented kneeling on a cushion, in the act of prayer. The following inscription, now almost illegible, appears beneath.

[Picture: Tregoz monument] HERE LIETH KATHARINE BLOUNT, YOUNGEST DAUGHTER OF RICHARD BLOUNT ESQ., OF DEDISHAM, (DESCENDED FROM SIR WALTER BLOUNT KNT. LORD MOUNTJOY) AND MARY WIFE TO THE SAID RICHARD, DAUGHTER TO SIR WILLIAM WESTE, KNT., LORD DE LA WAR, WHICH KATHARINE DECEASED MARCH 1, 1617, IN THE 27TH. YEAR OF HER AGE. SHE LEFT HER ESTATE TO HER 4 SISTERS, VIZ. ELIZABETH, ANN, MARTHA, AND JANE, TO WHOSE PIOUS MEMORY THEY ERECTED THIS MONUMENT.

The remaining monument is to the memory of mistress Jane Blount, ob. 1614.

[Picture: Blount monument]

In the pavement is a large slab of Sussex marble, with an inscription to the memory of Richard Bradbridge gent., and Denys his wife, with their children, ob. 1633.

The tower is massive, and like all those in the Weald, surmounted by a spire of shingles, supported upon four upright beams of a length and diameter very seldom seen.

This parish which is bounded on the east by Warnham, west by Rudgewick and Billinghurst, north by Rudgewick, and south by Itchingfield, approaches nearer in form to a circle than any other, and is intersected in several directions by 3 turnpike roads. From the excellent slate quarries in the vicinity, slabs containing 100 square feet, and about 5 in thickness have often been raised. Several rare botanical plants are found in this parish, some indigenous, and others originally introduced by Dr. T. Manningham a former rector, well versed in that science.

The late eminent antiquary Mr. Warton, observes in his history of Kiddington, page 65, "About 5 years ago, (1775) on the edge of a lane in the parish of Slinfold in Sussex, four miles from Horsham, I saw several deep fissures in the Stane street, a Roman road, going from Arundel, if not from the sea side through Dorking to London. The dorsum not intended for heavy carriages consists of sea gravel and sea pebbles abounding on the Sussex coast, above 3 feet deep, and 7 yards long: these minute materials must have been amassed with prodigious labour.

Springfield, a handsome brick mansion to the north of the town, is the property of Francis Scawen Blunt esq., who now rents it to --- Thornton Esq.


INNS AT HORSHAM

The King's Head Hotel East Street. Anchor Hotel Town Hall square. The Crown Carfax. The Lamb Ditto. The Swan West Street. The Castle Ditto. The Black Horse Ditto. The Punch bowl Ditto. The Green Dragon Bishoprick. The Queen's Head East Street. The Hurst Arms North Street. The Dog and Bacon London Road. The White Hart North Parade.

COACHES.

Coaches pass daily to and from London, Brighton, Worthing, Windsor, Oxford, and Reading.--The Horsham and London Star Coach leaves the Swan inn West Street, at 7 o'clock every morning, and reaches the old Bell inn Holborn about a quarter to 12: from thence it starts the same afternoon, at a quarter past 3, and arrives at Horsham by 8.


GAS.

The streets are now well lighted with gas, considering that this is the first year of their illumination. The gameter is erected at the back of Albion Terrace, another specimen of the improving state of the town. The good people of Horsham have lately been much annoyed by the dirty condition of their streets, occasioned by the insertion of the gas pipes, even to such an extent as almost to merit the ancient epithet of the county, as we find in a very old verse, or rather ryhme of the peculiarities of each shire.

Essex ful of good hoswifes Middlesex ful of shyves, Kentshire hoot as fyre, Sussex ful of dyrt and myre.


PLANTS.

RHYNCHOSPORA ALBA

SCIRPUS CARINATUS

ERYOPHORUM POLYSTACHION

CONVALLARIA MAJALIS

LUCIOLA FOSTERI

POLYGONUM BISTORTA

ABOXA MOSCHATELLINA

MONOTROPA HYPOPITYS

PYROLA MEDIA

NYMPHAEA ALBA

CARDAMINE IMPATIENS

EUPHORBIA ESULA

CAREX CURTA

CAREX STRIGOSA

ASP IDIUM OREOPTERIS

ASPIDIUM THELYPTERIS

OSMUNDA REGALIS

LYCOPODIUM SELAGO

PHASCUM ALTERNIFOLIUM

GYMNOSTOMUM FASCICULARE

NECKERA PUMILA

CALICIUM FERRUGINEUM

ARTHONIA SWARTZIANA

VARIOLARIA VELATA

PARMELIA SPECIOSA

SCYPHOPHORUS PARASITICUS

CHARA GRACITIS


SAURIAN REMAINS.

The strata around Horsham, (which is situated in the Wealden formation) are celebrated for the abundance of the exuviae, of large saurian animals.--Many of the bones of the Iguanadon, an enormous reptile, which was formerly an inhabitant of these districts, are now in the possession of Mr G. B. Holmes, of Horsham, by whom these particulars are obligingly communicated. The animal which more nearly approximates to it, than any other now in existence, is the Iguana Cornuta a native of the tropical parts of America, and from its resemblance to which it has received its name; but more particularly on account of the teeth of the Iguanadon, which resemble those of no other animal than the Iguana, of which one species (the Cornuta,) has, like the Iguanadon, a single horn. If we take the Iguana as our model, and attempt to reconstruct the enormous Iguanadon in just proportion, from the relics which have been frequently exhumed, we shall produce a monster 100 feet in length, which there is every reason to believe is not an exaggeration.--Besides the Iguanadon, we find the bones of the crocodile, the Plesiosaurus, the turtle, and other amphibious reptiles; with the carbonized remains of monocotyledoneous plants, arborescent ferns, and palms, &c.

[Picture: Map of Horsham]


WATER.

The water around Horsham is of a very superior quality, and extremely abundant. It is intended shortly to supply each house by means of pipes. At Tower Hill, is a spring, by whose waters every thing over which it passes is encrusted, in consequence of its depositing a small portion of carbonate of lime, with which it is impregnated in passing the limestone strata, through which it flows.


POPULATION

The population of Horsham, has of late years greatly increased, and at present amounts to nearly 6000. The following table will afford a view of its advance during the present century.

1801 3204 1811 3839 1821 4575 1831 5105

ROADS.

Horsham, though at present remarkable for the excellent state of its turnpike roads, was, before the year 1750, one of most extraordinary instances of non communication in the kingdom: previously to the abovementioned period, the London road was so execrably bad, that whoever went there on wheels, was compelled to go round by Canterbury!

It is intended to make the great London and Brighton rail road pass through the town, which cannot fail to encreas the business and traffic of the place.


FAIRS.

The fairs of Horsham are on April 5th: Monday before Whitsunday, sheep and lambs: July 18th cattle and pedalary; the Cherry fair; Sep. 5th. cattle: Nov. 27th. cattle and toys. Last Tuesday in every month, for cattle.

"Nicholas Hostresham, whose name is contracted to Horsham, may justly be placed in this town, as descended from it; families of note often taking their names from their places of residence; and if that be admitted, he will give some lustre to it, for he was a very learned man, and so famous a physician, that the nobility coveted his company on any conditions, so high an esteem had they for him. It seems it was something of a peculiar art in him, to cure and yet to please his patient, which he would not do nevertheless it was consistent with the disease; for his aim was, to cure and please if possible, but displease if unavoidable. He was of a middle temper, neither so rough as to affright, nor so gentle, as to humour his patient into his own destruction; so that he was almost two physicians in one man. He died in the year 1448."

(From a survey of the county of Sussex, printed in the year 1730; at present in the possession of Miss Cove, Albion Terrace.)

[Picture: Finis]


APPENDIX

Having principally confined the limits of the foregoing account, to a circle of about 4 or 5 miles around the town of Horsham, we have omitted previously to notice the priory of Rusper, a building of great antiquity, and closely connected with that borough, by the endowment of the church to its nuns. Very little of the ancient edifice remains at present, I shall therefore insert a very brief account of the nunnery, as given by Sir William Burrell, in his interesting MSS. preserved in the British Museum.

"On the north wing of the east front of the nunnery, towards the orchard, the foundations of additional building, and the arch of a cellar are visible, 58 feet in extent, and east of the present house. It is probable a similar wing was on the south aspect and thereby formed a Greek II. The ancient apple trees which cover the flank, render such an idea very problematical." Near the building is a very deep well, said to have been used as a place of destruction for those members of the convent, who had dared to break their vows of chastity.

Near Mrs Delves tomb at Horsham, is the headless brass figure of an ecclesiastic, supposed from the letters T C in the cope, to cover the remains of Thomas clerk, a former rector.

[Picture: Rusper Nunnery]

[Picture: Brass Figure]

[Picture: Brass Figure]


INDEX.

Assizes 3

Braose monument 10

Brotherhood at Horsham 24

Bells Horsham 26

Blount monuments 64

Church of Horsham 6

Covert monument 16

Chantries at Horsham 24

Chapels Dissenting 29

Collier Richard 31

Chesworth 33

Caryll monument 41

Castle at Nuthurst 55

Coaches 68

Dimensions of the church 8

Delves monument 13

Denne house and park

Dubbins Green 52

Eversfield donations 22

Endowment of the church 26

Foys brass of 17

Font at Horsham 21

Free School the

Field place 44

Forest St Leonard's 45

Do legends of 45

Do serpent of 46

Fairs 72

Gaol Horsham 27

Gas 68

Horsham derivation of the name 1

Hoo monument 14

Hoo Wm. brass of 16

Hurst Robert tomb of 18

Hills Place 35

Horsham Nicholas 72

Inscriptions in the church 18

Itchingfield village of 57

Inns at Horsham 68

Jamieson monument 23

Marroitt Capt. tomb of 19

Matthews donations 22

Members for Horsham 2

Moated House 33

North Chapel 34

Nuthurst village of 53

Do lodge 53

Nun's well 56

Pike T. tomb of 17

Plague attack of 22

Plants 69

Population of Horsham 71

Roman road 67

Roads 71

Railroad Brighton, intended direction of 71

Shelley donations 22

Schools at Horsham 33

Stroud park 61

Slinfold village of 61

Saurian remains 70

Town Hall the 4

Tower the Lollard's 23

Tregoz monument in Slinfold Church 63

Warnham village of 39

Do. Court 43

Water 70

* * * * *

Printed by Howard Dudley, Millbank St.


Footnotes

{12} Dallaway page 355 vol 2.

{26} Declaration of Chantries in the Augmentation office.

{31} Dallaway.


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