swer those questions by studying the state of the American mind when the Academy was formed. In 1776, the high sounding and world resounding Declaration of Independence was signed, which said that all men were created free and equal and had an inalienable right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. And yet some of the signers of that Declaration held slaves. Why was it? The late Prof. William Graham Summer of Yale said that it was because they did not regard the Negro as a man.
And the whole slavery debate hinged on the question of the humanity of the Negro, hinged upon the question as to whether he possessed the intellectual, ethical, aesthetical and religious potentialities and possibilities which white men possessed, hinged upon the question as to whether the Negro did or did not possess a soul. The South said that the Negro was a beast and not a man, and was not capable of intellectual or moral improvement. In Georgia and other states, they took particular pains to see that the Negro had n