These observations are written with the purpose of outlining briefly, as far as the writer was concerned, the evolution of the scheme of bringing the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Long Island Railroad into New York City, and also, as Chief Engineer of the North River Division of the New York Tunnel Extension of the Pennsylvania Railroad, to record in a general way some of the leading features of the work on this division, which is that portion of the work extending from the east line of Ninth Avenue, New York City, to the Hackensack Portal on the westerly side of the Palisades, as an introduction to the papers by the Chief Assistant Engineer and the Resident Engineers describing in detail the work as constructed.
e or below grade. The better plan, of course, was obviously to make it a subway throughout, but, further, the residents of this ward objected to the subway through that section, and that construction would have made any change of the Manhattan Beach Division at Manhattan Crossing very difficult for the future; besides this, the controlling factor was the absolute limitation by the City of Brooklyn of the amount of expenditure therefor in which they would participate, therefore a composite scheme, which is the plan as carried out, was agreed upon, being in part subway and part elevated. This scheme reached a focus early in 1897, and the law constituting the Board for the Atlantic Avenue Improvement was passed, with a provision in the last paragraph of the Act, for the construction of a tunnel from Flatbush Avenue Terminal under Flatbush Avenue and Fulton Street to Pineapple Street, crossing the river to Broadway and Maiden Lane (Cortlandt Street), New York City, and with the understanding that it would be exte
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