lates and a loosening up of the wedges in the supports bearing on the arch timbers. During this operation of "bottoming," two men on each side were constantly employed in tightening up wedges and shims above the arch timbers. It is impossible to explain the fact that these timbers slackened (without proportionate roof settlement) by any other theory than that the arching was so nearly perfect that it relieved the bracing of a large part of the load, the ordinary loose material being held in place by the arching or wedging together of the 2-in. by 3-ft. sheeting boards in the roof, arranged in the form of a segmental arch. The material above this roof was coarse, sharp sand, through which it had been difficult to tunnel without losing ground, and it had admitted water freely after each rain until the drainage of a neighboring pond had been completed, the men never being willing to resume work until the influx of water had stopped.
The foregoing applies only to material ordinarily found under ground not suba