;c., &c., have been poured into the luckless animals as if they were so many test tubes. A chemical antidote, a substance possessing special affinity to snake-poison and by means of this affinity combining with it in some mysterious and incomprehensible manner, one can hardy imagine to exist. Physiological antidotes, on the other hand, substances acting on the system in a manner the exact reverse of, and in direct antagonism to the snake-poison, though apparently the only feasible ones, have been strangely neglected and almost despised by experimenters.
In the vast storehouse of Nature the department most likely to furnish such antidotes is the vegetable kingdom. The untutored human mind has for centuries past intuitively clung to this idea, and sought among plants for remedies against the deadly ophidian poison. Hence the great number of vegetable antidotes that have from time to time been recommended and the efficacy of some of which at least has been confirmed by reliable observations. But the h