Version 3.0 Copyright (c) 2000 Eric S. Raymond. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the Open Publication License, version 2.0.
The Cathedral and the Bazaar
The Mail Must Get Through
The Importance of Having Users
Release Early, Release Often
How Many Eyeballs Tame Complexity
When Is a Rose Not a Rose?
Popclient becomes Fetchmail
Fetchmail Grows Up
A Few More Lessons from Fetchmail
Necessary Preconditions for the Bazaar Style
The Social Context of Open-Source Software
On Management and the Maginot Line
Epilog: Netscape Embraces the Bazaar
neral commitment to a cathedral-building style of development. If the overriding objective was for users to see as few bugs as possible, why then you'd only release a version every six months (or less often), and work like a dog on debugging between releases. The Emacs C core was developed this way. The Lisp library, in effect, was not-because there were active Lisp archives outside the FSF's control, where you could go to find new and development code versions independently of Emacs's release cycle [QR].
The most important of these, the Ohio State Emacs Lisp archive, anticipated the spirit and many of the features of today's big Linux archives. But few of us really thought very hard about what we were doing, or about what the very existence of that archive suggested about problems in the FSF's cathedral-building development model. I made one serious attempt around 1992 to get a lot of the Ohio code formally merged into the official Emacs Lisp library. I ran into political trouble and was largely unsucces