ranks of life,--though eminent scholars, physicians, or jurists have been sometimes raised immediately to an academical seat. After a few years, five or more, the _Privat-Docent_ who has met with a reasonable degree of success may hope for a professorship,--though many able men have remained in this inferior position for long years, some even for life. If their hearers are but few, they resort to private lessons, to book-making, anything that will aid them in maintaining their position, always with the hope that "something must turn up."
The _Privat-Docent_ system, though condemned by some, has been much extolled by many German writers. It is, say the latter, a warranty for the freedom of teaching, no slight point In a country where all is subservient to the political rulers, forming men for the professorship, and giving them a confidence in their own powers, as they must rely exclusively for their support on the income they receive from their hearers. From among their number are chosen those constituting