mised "fraternity and succour to all peoples who wish to recover their liberty."
The doctrine, however, lingered only anæmically through the early decades of the nineteenth century. In face of the growing delicacy of the international system, it was gradually abandoned for the conservative principle of non-intervention, based on the independence and equality of all States. But even this principle has not always been observed in regard to small States, although, curiously enough, Russia invoked it against Great Britain for the protection of King "Bomba" of Sicily, in the case of the Neapolitan prison horrors. Abstention from intervention in certain glaring cases of inhumanity by foreign Governments--such as the persecution of the Russian Jews--has been defended on the ground of absence of treaty rights, but, as a matter of fact, this argument, too, has not been consistently adhered to. In all cases, whether of great or small States, treaty rights or no treaty rights, the real test has alm