e shield. The head is rounded and immovable of its
own volition. The abdominal part is in rings that can be turned
and twisted; on the tip are two tiny, needlesharp points, and on
each of three rings of the abdominal shield there are in many
cases a pair of tiny hooks, very slight projections, yet enough
to be of use. Some lepidopterists think the pupa works head first
to the surface, pushing with the abdomen. To me this seems impossible.
The more one forced the blunt head against the earth the closer
it would pack, and the delicate tongue shield surely would break.
There is no projection on the head that would loosen or lift
One prominent lepidopterist I know, believes the moth emerges
underground, and works its way to the surface as it fights to
escape a cocoon. I consider this an utter impossibility.
Remember the earth-encrusted cicada cases you have seen clinging
to the trunks of trees, after the insect has reached the surface
and abandoned them. Think what would happen