ar is gradually, and finally almost entirely, changed to directly-reducing sugar. The maximum sugar content is reached earlier the earlier in the season the apple ripens. Late winter varieties reach this point as late as November. There is much starch in the latter when picked, which gradually changes to sugar on keeping. This process is analogous to the ripening of the banana. This fruit is picked while green, and from it is made by the natives of South America a flour which is a good farinaceous food, and readily answers the place of the starchy grains. We are familiar with the fact that as the fruit ripens it contains large quantities of sugar, and is edible uncooked, which fact is usually not true of starchy foods.
The subject of the decay of the apple has been discussed in a very interesting way in the Popular Science Monthly for May, 1893, by Byron D. Halsted. Though chemical changes take place here, also, and the apple is finally resolved mostly into carbonic-acid gas, water, and minera