In mission times tubular stone pipes were used throughout northern and central Baja California by shamans; they were smoked and the smoke was blown on injured or diseased parts, or they were used as sucking and blowing tubes for the removal of disease-causing objects.
Miscellaneous stone artifacts.--There are few stone artifacts besides the pipes. Among these is a worked piece of pumice (139613), 8 cm. by 4 cm., which has a bowl-like concavity ground through from one side to the other (pl. 12, c). There are two fragments of gypsum which have been roughly chipped along one or more edges (139568, pl. 13, f; 139569).
Bone awls or "daggers."--Two bone awls or "daggers" of identical type are included in the collection (139589, a and b; pl. 12, a, b). Both specimens are made of the sawed and ground metapodials of some large mammal, presumably deer. The shorter of the two (139589a) retains vestiges of a black adhesive for half the