-general of the "South African Native National Congress", founded in 1912 (which renamed itself as the African National Congress or ANC ten years later).
The first piece of major legislation presented to the whites-only parliament of South Africa was the Natives' Land Act, eventually passed in 1913, which was designed to entrench white power and property rights in the countryside -- as well as to solve the "native problem" of African peasant farmers working for themselves and denying their labour power to white employers.
The main battle ground for the implementation of the new legislation was the Orange Free State. White farmers took the cue from the Land Act to begin expelling black peasants from their land as "squatters", while the police began to rigorously enforce the pass-laws which registered the employment of Africans and prescribed their residence and movement rights.
The Free State became the cockpit of resistance by the newly formed SANNC. Its womens' league demonstrated against pass law
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