Just as the soil lies beneath the plant and animal life we see, so is a knowledge of the soil necessary for all understanding of flora and fauna. The real complexity of the apparently simple element "Earth," and the variety of methods required for exploring it, are typical of the problems which the tout ensemble of the outdoor world presents to the naturalist.
when the teacher alone does the experiments, it not being convenient for the scholars to do much.
In conclusion the author desires to tender his best thanks to the Rev. Cecil Grant of St George's School, and to Mr W. J. Ashby of the Wye School, for having allowed him the use of their schools and appliances during the progress of these lessons. Especially are his thanks due to Mr Lionel Armstrong for much help ungrudgingly rendered in collecting material, taking photographs, and supervising the experiments.
E. J. R.
HARPENDEN, February, 1911.
WHAT IS THE SOIL MADE OF?
Soil and subsoil from a hole dug in the garden. Clay. Six tripods and bunsen burners or spirit lamps . Six crucibles or tin lids and pipe-clay triangles . Twelve glass jars or gas cylinders . Six beakers  .
If we talk to a farmer or a gardener about soi