The Twelve Tables

The Twelve Tables
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The Twelve Tables
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The legal history of Rome begins properly with the Twelve Tables.

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person shall have caused loss ... [41]

7. If a quadruped shall be said to have caused damage (pauperies), legal action (actio) [shall be sanctioned] either for the surrender of the thing which made the damage[42] or for the offer of assessment for the damage.

8. [If a person] pasture [his] cattle [on a neighbor's land, he shall be liable to a legal action].[43]

9. He who has enchanted crops[44] ... nor should he decoy another's corn ... [45]

10. For pasturing on or for cutting secretly by night [another's] crops acquired by tillage [shall be] in the case of an adult hanging and death [by sacrifice] to Ceres;[46] a person under the age of puberty (under 15 years of age) [shall] either be scourged at the discretion [of the magistrate] or make composition by [paying] double [damages] for the harm [done].

11. Who shall have destroyed by burning a building or a stack of corn set alongside a house is ordered to be bound, scourged, burned to death, provided that